Site Definition List

Full Site Content Definition List

Algal Bloom – or algae bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems. It is often recognized by the discoloration in the water from the algae's pigments. The term algae encompasses many types of aquatic photosynthetic organisms, both macroscopic multicellular organisms like seaweed and microscopic unicellular organisms like cyanobacteria. Algal bloom commonly refers to the rapid growth of microscopic unicellular algae, not macroscopic algae. An example of a macroscopic algal bloom is a kelp forest.

[d1] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 10). Algal bloom. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:37, January 11, 2022, from

Algal Toxins – see Algal Bloom.

Asthma – A long-term respiratory condition, in which the airways may unexpectedly and suddenly narrow, often in response to an allergen, cold air, exercise, or emotional stress. Symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

[d3] asthma. (2021, December 2). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 18:13, January 9, 2022 from

Bisphenol A (BPA) – is a chemical compound and one of the simplest and best known bisphenols. It is produced by the condensation of phenol and acetone. It is a colorless solid which is soluble in organic solvents, but poorly soluble in water (0.344 wt. % at 83 °C).

[d4] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 4). Bisphenol A. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:07, January 5, 2022, from

Bronchitis – An inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning.

[d5] bronchitis. (2021, November 11). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 18:19, January 9, 2022 from

Campylobacter – (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter typically appear comma- or s-shaped, and are motile. Some Campylobacter species can infect humans, sometimes causing campylobacteriosis, a diarrheal disease in humans. Campylobacter spp. can also be transmitted via water.

[d6] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 7). Campylobacter. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:15, January 5, 2022, from

Carcinogen – is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.

[d7] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 4). Carcinogen. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:16, January 5, 2022, from

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) – is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.

[d8] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 1). Cardiovascular disease. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:18, January 5, 2022, from

Cercarial Dermatitis – also known as Swimmer’s Itch or Schistosome Dermatitis is a short-term allergic immune reaction occurring in the skin of humans that have been infected by water-borne schistosomes, a type of flatworms. It is common in freshwater, brackish and marine habitats worldwide. Incidence may be on the rise, although this may also be attributed to better monitoring. Nevertheless, the condition has been regarded as an emerging infectious disease.

[d9] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, August 20). Swimmer's itch. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:34, January 11, 2022, from

Chloramines – refer to derivatives of ammonia and organic amines wherein one or more N-H bonds have been replaced by N-Cl bonds. Two classes of compounds are considered: inorganic chloramines and organic chloramines.

[d10] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 25). Chloramines. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:23, January 5, 2022, from

Chlorine – is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidizing agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

[d11] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 5). Chlorine. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:31, January 5, 2022, from

Chlorine Demand – When chlorine is added to water, some of the chlorine reacts first with organic materials and metals in the water and is not available for disinfection.

[d12] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlorine Residual Testing. PDF File.

Materials developed by CDC. Reference to specific commercial products, manufacturers, companies, or trademarks does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government, Department of Health and Human Services, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This material is otherwise available on the agency website for no charge.

Chronic Pulmonary Disease – see Respiratory Disease.

Combined Chlorine – The amount of chlorine that has reacted with nitrates and is unavailable for disinfection.

[d14] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlorine Residual Testing. PDF File.

Materials developed by CDC. Reference to specific commercial products, manufacturers, companies, or trademarks does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government, Department of Health and Human Services, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This material is otherwise available on the agency website for no charge.

Cryptosporidium – Sometimes informally called crypto, is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.

[d15] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 1). Cryptosporidium. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:39, January 5, 2022, from

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), (1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane) – is the organic compound with the formula BrCH(CH2Br)(CH2Cl). It is a dense colorless liquid although commercial samples often appear amber or even brown. It is the active ingredient in the nematicide Nemagon, also known as Fumazone.

[d16] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 5). 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:42, January 5, 2022, from,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane&oldid=1063884408.

Dichloramine – is a reactive inorganic compound. It has the formula NHCl2. The yellow gas is unstable and reacts with many materials. It is formed by a reaction between ammonia and chlorine or sodium hypochlorite. It is a byproduct formed during the synthesis of monochloramine and nitrogen trichloride.

[d17] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 2). Dichloramine. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:43, January 5, 2022, from

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) – is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride. Originally developed as an insecticide, it became infamous for its environmental impacts. DDT was used in the second half of World War II to limit the spread of the insect-born diseases malaria and typhus among civilians and troops.

[d18] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 2). DDT. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:46, January 5, 2022, from

Dioxins – are a group of chemical compounds that are persistent organic pollutants (POP's) in the environment. They are mostly by-products of burning or various industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, unwanted minor components of intentionally produced mixtures.

[d19] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 1). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:48, January 5, 2022, from

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) – is a molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids. Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

[d20] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 2). DNA. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:50, January 5, 2022, from

E. Coli (Escherichia Coli O157:H7) – is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga-like toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and undercooked ground beef. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of elderly patients, and of patients whose immune systems are otherwise compromised.

[d21] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, October 2). Escherichia coli O157:H7. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:54, January 5, 2022, from

Endocrine Disruption – Sometimes also referred to as hormonally active agents, endocrine disrupting chemicals, or endocrine disrupting compounds are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormonal) systems. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Found in many household and industrial products, endocrine disruptors "interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body that are responsible for development, behavior, fertility, and maintenance of homeostasis (normal cell metabolism).

[d22] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 13). Endocrine disruptor. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:55, January 5, 2022, from

Epidemiological – is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

[d23] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 29). Epidemiology. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:56, January 5, 2022, from

Epididymis – is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals. It is a single, narrow, tightly-coiled tube in adult humans, 6 to 7 meters (20 to 23 ft.) in length connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens.

[d24] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, June 15). Epididymis. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:57, January 5, 2022, from

Epithelium – is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. It is a thin, continuous, protective layer of compactly packed cells with little intercellular matrix. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin.

[d25] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 18). Epithelium. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:59, January 5, 2022, from

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) – is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland and regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) work together in the reproductive system.

[d26] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, October 9). Follicle-stimulating hormone. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:00, January 5, 2022, from

Free Chlorine – The chlorine available to inactivate disease-causing organisms, and thus a measure to determine the potability of water.

[d27] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlorine Residual Testing. PDF File.

Materials developed by CDC. Reference to specific commercial products, manufacturers, companies, or trademarks does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government, Department of Health and Human Services, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This material is otherwise available on the agency website for no charge.

Gastrointestinal – is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled at the anus as feces. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines.

[d28] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 2). Gastrointestinal tract. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:01, January 5, 2022, from

Genotoxicity – describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, all mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic. The alteration can have direct or indirect effects on the DNA: the induction of mutations, mistimed event activation, and direct DNA damage leading to mutations. The permanent, heritable changes can affect either somatic cells of the organism or germ cells to be passed on to future generations. Cells prevent expression of the genotoxic mutation by either DNA repair or apoptosis; however, the damage may not always be fixed leading to mutagenesis.

[d29] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, August 30). Genotoxicity. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:02, January 5, 2022, from

Giardia – is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Metamonada that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between a swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst.

[d30] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, October 5). Giardia. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:30, January 11, 2022, from

Helicobacter Pylori – Previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach. Its helical shape (from which the genus name, helicobacter, derives) is thought to have evolved in order to penetrate the mucoid lining of the stomach and thereby establish infection. Pylori has been associated with lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach, esophagus, colon, rectum, or tissues around the eye (termed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the cited organ), and of lymphoid tissue in the stomach (termed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma).

[d31] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 5). Helicobacter pylori. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:03, January 5, 2022, from

Humic Acids – Organic substances extracted from soil that coagulate (form small solid pieces) when a strong-base extract is acidified.

[d32] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 7). Humic substance. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:06, January 5, 2022, from

Hydrochloric Acid – Also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (chemical formula: ‹See Tfd›HCl). It is a colorless solution with a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as a strong acid. It is a component of the gastric acid in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans. Hydrochloric acid is an important laboratory reagent and industrial chemical.

[d33] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 31). Hydrochloric acid. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:07, January 5, 2022, from

Legionella – is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.

[d34] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 19). Legionella. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:08, January 5, 2022, from

Legionella Pneumophila – is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L. pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in this group and is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis.

[d35] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 9). Legionella pneumophila. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:09, January 5, 2022, from

Lipids – is a macro biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents. Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.

[d36] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 13). Lipid. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:10, January 5, 2022, from

Listeria Monocytogenes – is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen. It can grow and reproduce inside the host's cells and is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens: 20 to 30% of foodborne listeriosis infections in high-risk individuals may be fatal. Responsible for an estimated 1,600 illnesses and 260 deaths in the United States annually, listeriosis ranks third in total number of deaths among foodborne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella spp. and Clostridium botulinum.

[d37] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, October 28). Facultative anaerobic organism. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:11, January 5, 2022, from

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) – Also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. The production of LH is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell–stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. It acts synergistically with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

[d38] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 5). Luteinizing hormone. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:13, January 5, 2022, from

Meta-Analysis – is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. Meta-analyses can be performed when there are multiple scientific studies addressing the same question, with each individual study reporting measurements that are expected to have some degree of error. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. Meta-analytic results are considered the most trustworthy source of evidence by the evidence-based medicine literature.

[d39] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 4). Meta-analysis. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:14, January 5, 2022, from

Motile Spermatozoa – see Total Motile Spermatozoa (TMS).

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) – is a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed (through natural selection) or acquired (through horizontal gene transfer) a multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are a broad-spectrum group that include some penams (penicillin derivatives such as methicillin and oxacillin) and cephems such as the cephalosporins. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, or MSSA.

[d41] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 26). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:19, January 5, 2022, from

Mutagen X (MX) – or 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one, is a byproduct of the disinfection of water by chlorination. MX is produced by reaction of chlorine with natural humic acids.

[d42] Wikipedia contributors. (2020, June 24). Mutagen X. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:20, January 5, 2022, from

Norovirus – sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis. Infection is characterized by non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Fever or headaches may also occur. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after being exposed, and recovery typically occurs within 1 to 3 days. Complications are uncommon, but may include dehydration, especially in the young, the old, and those with other health problems. The virus is usually spread by the fecal–oral route. This may be through contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact.

[d43] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 5). Norovirus. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:27, January 11, 2022, from

Organochloride – Organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine. The chloroalkane class (alkanes with one or more hydrogens substituted by chlorine) provides common examples. The wide structural variety and divergent chemical properties of organochlorides lead to a broad range of names, applications, and properties. Organochlorine compounds have wide use in many applications, though some are of profound environmental concern, with TCDD being one of the most notorious.

[d44] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 18). Organochloride. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:23, January 5, 2022, from

Organochlorine Compounds – see Organochloride.

Organophosphate – (also known as phosphate esters, or OPEs) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O=P(OR)3, a central phosphate molecule with alkyl or aromatic substituents. They can be considered as esters of phosphoric acid. Like most functional groups organophosphates occur in a diverse range of forms, with important examples including key biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and ATP, as well as many insecticides, herbicides, nerve agents and flame retardants.

[d46] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 9). Organophosphate. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:24, January 5, 2022, from

Parts Per Million (PPM) – Parts per million. (10000 ppm = 1%)

[d47] ppm. (2019, October 27). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19:05, January 9, 2022 from

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) – is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids.

[d48] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 30). Polychlorinated biphenyl. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:29, January 5, 2022, from

Polysaccharide – or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrate found in food. They are long chain polymeric carbohydrates composed of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages. This carbohydrate can react with water (hydrolysis) using amylase enzymes as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars (monosaccharides, or oligosaccharides). They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen and galactogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.

[d49] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 26). Polysaccharide. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:30, January 5, 2022, from

Pontiac Fever – is an acute, nonfatal respiratory disease caused by various species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Legionella. It causes a mild upper respiratory infection that resembles acute influenza. Pontiac fever resolves spontaneously and often goes undiagnosed. Both Pontiac fever and the more severe Legionnaire's disease are caused by the same bacteria, but Pontiac fever does not include pneumonia.

[d50] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, May 16). Pontiac fever. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:31, January 5, 2022, from

Preconditioning – The act of preparing something for a subsequent action.

[d51] preconditioning. (2019, October 12). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19:17, January 9, 2022 from

Proteins – are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity.

[d52] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 21). Protein. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:33, January 5, 2022, from

Pseudomonas – is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity and consequently are able to colonize a wide range of niches.

[d53] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 10). Pseudomonas. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:24, January 11, 2022, from

Pulmonary – Refers to Lungs or Respiratory System.

[d54] Wikipedia contributors. (2022, January 3). Lung. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:34, January 5, 2022, from

Pulmonary Edema (PE) – Also known as pulmonary congestion, is liquid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. It is due to either failure of the left ventricle of the heart to remove blood adequately from the pulmonary circulation (cardiogenic pulmonary edema), or an injury to the lung tissue or blood vessels of the lung (non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema).

[d55] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 26). Pulmonary edema. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:35, January 5, 2022, from

Pustules – is a small elevation of the skin containing cloudy or purulent material (pus) usually consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells. These can be either white or red.

[d56] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 12). Skin condition. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:37, January 5, 2022, from

Respiratory Diseases, or Lung Diseases – are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals. They include conditions of the respiratory tract including the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleurae, pleural cavity, the nerves and muscles of respiration. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, influenza, and pharyngitis to life-threatening diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis, acute asthma, lung cancer, and severe acute respiratory syndromes, such as COVID-19. Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways, including by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease.

[d57] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 5). Respiratory disease. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:35, January 5, 2022, from

S. Aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) – is a Gram-positive round-shaped bacterium, a member of the Firmicutes, and is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus usually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies.

[d58] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 30). Staphylococcus aureus. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:38, January 5, 2022, from

Salmonella – Any of the serotypes of the two species of rod-shaped bacteria, of the genus Salmonella, especially Salmonella enterica, that cause typhoid fever and salmonellosis, manifest as food poisoning and other diseases.

[d59] salmonella. (2021, October 26). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19:28, January 9, 2022 from

Seminal Vesicle – (also called vesicular glands, or seminal glands) are a pair of two convoluted tubular glands that lie behind the urinary bladder of some male mammals. They secrete fluid that partly composes the semen.

[d60] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 19). Seminal vesicles. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:10, January 9, 2022, from

Shigella – is a genus of bacteria that is Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped and genetically closely related to E. coli.

[d61] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 12). Shigella. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:29, January 11, 2022, from

Shock Treatment – Process where a salt water pool is hyper-chlorinated with the intention of removing germs and algae. This is typically accomplished by use of the "boost" function on most chlorine generators.

Spermatogenesis – The process of sperm production in the testes.

[d63] spermatogenesis. (2021, October 29). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19:37, January 9, 2022 from

Staphylococcus aureus (“staph”) – A taxonomic species within the family Staphylococcaceae – a relatively common bacteria which is sometimes pathogenic. In humans it is a common cause of infections and food poisoning.

[d64] Staphylococcus aureus. (2020, June 5). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 15:08, January 11, 2022 from

Tachycardia – Also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate. In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults. Heart rates above the resting rate may be normal (such as with exercise) or abnormal (such as with electrical problems within the heart).

[d65] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 14). Tachycardia. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:48, January 5, 2022, from

Total Chlorine – The remaining chlorine concentration after the chlorine demand is accounted for.

[d66] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlorine Residual Testing. PDF File.

Materials developed by CDC. Reference to specific commercial products, manufacturers, companies, or trademarks does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government, Department of Health and Human Services, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This material is otherwise available on the agency website for no charge.

Total Motile Spermatozoa (TMS) – or total motile sperm count (TMSC) is a combination of sperm count, motility and volume, measuring how many million sperm cells in an entire ejaculate are motile.

[d67] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 28). Semen analysis. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:18, January 5, 2022, from

Trichloramine – Also known as Nitrogen trichloride, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. This yellow, oily, pungent-smelling and explosive liquid is most commonly encountered as a byproduct of chemical reactions between ammonia-derivatives and chlorine (for example, in swimming pools). Alongside monochloramine and dichloramine, trichloramine is responsible for the distinctive 'chlorine smell' associated with swimming pools, where the compound is readily formed as a product from hypochlorous acid reacting with ammonia and other nitrogenous substances in the water, such as urea from urine.

[d68] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 31). Nitrogen trichloride. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:50, January 5, 2022, from

Typhimurium – A specific epithet for a bacterium that causes typhoid fever in mice.

[d69] typhimurium. (2019, August 25). Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 20:03, January 9, 2022 from

Vibrio Cholerae – is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. The bacteria naturally live in brackish or saltwater where they attach themselves easily to the chitin-containing shells of crabs, shrimps, and other shellfish. Some strains of V. cholerae are pathogenic to humans and cause a deadly disease cholera, which can be derived from the consumption of undercooked or raw marine life species.

[d70] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, November 24). Vibrio cholerae. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:51, January 5, 2022, from

Vitro Fertilization (IVF) – is a process of fertilization where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from their ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a culture medium in a laboratory. After the fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, it is implanted in a uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.

[d71] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, December 25). In vitro fertilization. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:53, January 5, 2022, from

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